The Changing Role of State Responsibility: Comparative Approach

Kennedy M Maranga

Abstract


State sovereignty has for the past several hundred years, been a defining principle of interstate relations and a foundation of world order. This paper explores the concept of contractual relationships between states and citizens. An analysis as to how the social contract theory was crafted and has evolved over time is examined. The paper explores and describes the historical context of state formation and state responsibility from the 16th century to the present. Case law is also cited. The effect of these concepts on social change specifically on public policymaking and implementation is analyzed. Recent developments in the European Union, Sudan and Asia have been considered. The 2010 and 2011 political revolutions in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and other Middle East countries demonstrate how state responsibility has undergone change and needs to take a different approach owing to global changes: technology, economic growth, education, and political influence. Key finding is that, in today’s globalizing world, it is generally recognized that cultural, environmental, and economic influences neither respect borders and the doctrine of state sovereignty is no longer a defense.

References


Aegean Sea Case, in ICJ Reports, 1978.

Anaya, S. (2006). Indian Givers: What Indigenous peoples have contributed to International Human Rights law, Washington University Journal of Law & Policy, 122(175), 107-120.

Barcelona Case, Belgium Vv. Spain, 1970 I.C.J. 3.

Belky, A, C., Mark, & Roht, A. (1989). Implied waiver under the FSIA: a proposed exception to immunity for violation of peremptory norms of international law. California law Review, 77(2), 365.

Bell, S. (2009). The governance of public Affairs. Journal of Public Affairs, 9(2), 149-159.

Boutros Boutros-Ghali, (1992). An Agenda for Peace (New York: United Nations).

Bouzari v. Iran, 2004 CanLII 871 (ON CA).

Broomhall, R. (2004). International justice & the International criminal court: Between sovereignty and the rule of law, New York: Oxford University Press.

Charles E. Merriam (1958). History of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rousseau (New York: Columbia University Press).

Chimini, B, S. (2004). International Institutions today: An imperial Global state in the making. European Journal of International Law, 15(1).

Cobell v. Norton. 1128, 1140 (D.C. Cir. 2003).

Congo v. Uganda). Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2005.

Courthard, G. (2007). Subjects of empire: Indigenous peoples and the politics of recognition in Canada. Contemporary Political Theory, 6(4), 437-461.

Cravern, C., Clive, & Gray, K. (1986). Foreign state immunity in Australia. International Financial law Review, 5(5), 9.

De Brandere, E., Alstri, P., De Shutter, O. (2009). Non State actors’ centrism and human rights obligations. Leiden Journal of International law, 22(1), 191-209.

Deen-Racsmany, Z. (2007). Diplomatic protection and International criminal law: Can the gap be abridged? Leiden Journal of International Law, 20(4), 909-920.

Deming, R. (1974). Man and the world International law at work: Canada: Prentice-Hall.

Digglmann, O. (2007). The Aaland case and the sociological Approach to International law. European Journal of International law, 18(1), 135.

Durgard, J. (2007). The future of International law. A human rights perspective. Leiden Journal of International Law, 20(4), 729-739.

Dussians, A. (2004). Does the right of Self-determination include a right to a homeland? Sycruse Journal of International Law and Commerce, 31(1), 83-94.

Foley, R. (1991). Another Unique Species: Patterns in human evolutionary ecology. Essex: Longman scientific and technical.

Gaeta, P. (2007). On what conditions can a state be held responsible for Genocide? European Journal of International Law, 18(4), 631-729.

Galbreath, D. (2005). Dealing with diversity in International law, self determination and statehood. The international Journal of Human Rights, 9(4), 539-550.

Gibney, T, & Hansen. (1999). Transnational state responsibility for violation of human rights. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 12 (1), 228-268.

Gorki, P. (2002). State formation in early modern England. The Journal of Economic History, 62(1), 225-238.

Grande, E. & Pauly, L. (2007). Complex sovereignty: Reconstituting political authority in the twenty first century. University of Toronto Press.

Green, J. (2008). Private authority in global environmental politics: Delegation to non state actors in multilateral environmental treaties, American political science association, 17(1), 1-17.

Hans, M, & Shan, D. (2008). Redefining sovereignty in international economic law. Leiden Journal of International Law, 22(2), 395-411.

Janis, W. & Noyes J. (2005) International law. MN: West Publishing.

Jean, D. (2007). Regulating statehood. The Kosovo status settlement. Leiden Journal of International Law, 20(3), 649-669.

Kadic v. Karadizic, 70F.3rd 232 (2nd Cir.1995).

Kendall, M.P.A (1987). Immunity of state for non commercial torts. A comparative analysis of the international law commission draft. California Law Review, 75(5), 1849

Annan, K. (1999). "Two Concepts of Sovereignty," The Economist 352, 49-50.

Kwall, R. (1989). Governmental use of copyrighted property: The sovereign prerogative. Texas law Review, 67(4), 685.

Lam, C. (2004). Remembering the county of their birth: Indigenous peoples and territory. Journal of International Affairs, 57(2), 129-141.

Legomsky, S.K. (2005). Immigration and Refuge Law and Policy.

Leichtenstein v. Guatemala, 1955 I.C.J.

Mander, J., & Tauli-Corpuz, V. (2006). Paradigm Wars: Indigenous people’s resistance to globalization. Sierra club books, CA.

Milanovic, M. (2007). State responsibility for Genocide: A follow –up. European journal of International Law, 18(4), 669-695.

Mohammed A. (1995). "The New-Old Disorder in the Third World," Global Governance, (1),59-78.

Monogia, R. (2007). Historizing State sovereignty: Inequality and the form of equivalence. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 49(2), 384-392.

Morgan, E.S. (1988). Inventing the people: The rise of popular sovereignty in England and America. New York: Norton & Co.

Motevideo Convention, 1933, 49 Sta.3097, 165 L.N.T.S.19

Murray, F., Keens-Soper, M. & Hoffman, J. (1993). The political classics: Hamilton to Mill. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

Negretto, G. (2002). State formation and democracy in Latin America, 1810-1900. The American Political Science Review, 96(4), 856-858.

Nichols, L. (2005). Realizing the social contract: The case of colonization and indigenous peoples. Contemporary Political Theory, 4(1), 42.

Norogwodsky, N. (2007). Immunity for torture: Lessons from Bouzari v. Iran. European Journal of International Law, 18 (5), 937-953.

Paquete Habana Case, 175 U.S.677,20, S.Ct. 290,44 l.Ed. 320 (1900).

Poisner, E. (2007). An economic analysis of state and individual responsibility under international law. American law and Economics Review, 9(1), 72-115.

Poisner, E. 2006). Terrorism and the state: Rethinking the rules of state responsibility. Political science Quarterly, 121(3), 505-507.

Raustiala, K. (2006). Refining limits of international law. Georgia journal of international and Comparative law (34) UCLA school of law Research paper No. 66-02.

Ritter, N. & Bondanella. (1988). Rousseau Political writings: Discourse on inequality on political economy or social contract, Norton & Co.Inc

Rolfe, J. (2006). Climate change damage and international law: Prevention duties and state responsibility. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice, 16(3), 289-293.

Roscini, M. (2007).Threats of armed force and contemporary international law. Netherlands International law Review, 54(2), 229-240.

Scharf, M. (2001). The law of International Organizations. North Carolina Academic Press.

Sharife, K. (2009). Landmark ruling allows apartheid victims to sue multinationals. African Business, 35(4), 34-36-38.

Sigman, H. (2003). Letting states do the dirty work. State responsibility for federal regulation. National Tax Journal, 5691), 107-125.

Stacy, P. N. (1989). Proposed Amendments to the provisions of the foreign sovereign immunities Act. The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics, 23 (1), 179.

Statement by the President of the Security Council, October 30, 1992, UN Document S/24744.

Tantivess & Walt (2008). The role of state and non-state actors in the policy process. Health Policy and Planning, 23 (5), 328-338.

Tanzi, V. (2008). The role of the state and public finance in the next generation. OECD Journal on Budgeting, 8(2), 7-27.

Thakur, R. (2001). Global Norms and International law. An Asian perspective, International Review of the Red Cross, 83 (841).

Texaco v. Libya, (1978) 17 International Legal Materials. 1. 1177.

Twight, C. (2008). Sovereign impunity. The Independent Review, 12(4), 485-517.

United States V. Iran, 1980 I.C.J. 3. WL 368.

Washbun, K. (2006). American Indians, crime and the law. Michigan law Review, 104(4), 709-778.

Weiss, E. B. (2002). Symposium. The ILOs state responsibility Articles; The American Journal of Law, 96, 798-816.

Western Sahara Case (Adv. Op.), 1975, I.C.J. Rep. 12.


Full Text: PDF


__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

BOOKS

DMDMH Strategies for Qualitative Research

Support independent publishing: Buy this book on Lulu.