Restless legs syndrome or RLS is a common neurological disorder prevalent in both adults and
children and is often detrimental to regulatory sleep processes. RLS is subdivided into
primary/idiopathic RLS and secondary RLS that is due to a related medical condition. Risk
factors associated with the development of RLS include pregnancy, iron deficiency, genetic
heritability, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Additionally, RLS has high
comorbidity with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), insomnia, and nocturnal
eating. Iron replacement and behavior therapy can be successful treatment approaches initially;
however drug therapy (e.g., dopaminergic agents, opiates, and antiepileptic medications, and
benzodiazepine receptor agonists) can be used in severe cases of RLS. The long-term prognosis
of idiopathic RLS is not fatal; however, chronic secondary RLS can exacerbate associated
medical conditions and present significant health risks. The symptoms of RLS have not been
presented as detrimental to individual judgment and/or psyche. Thus, the Court has maintained
the position that individuals with RLS are liable for any and all committed offenses.
Keywords: Restless Legs Syndrome, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Periodic Leg
Movements During Sleep, Insomnia, Drug Therapy, Dopaminergic Agents